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Inflammation is a tightly regulated, naturally occurring part of the body’s protective response to injury or infection, intended to prevent damage to surrounding tissue. In response to inflammation, several mechanisms work to regulate this immune response. Thus, these regulatory mechanisms help to establish immune homeostasis.1
The most common form of psoriasis, plaque psoriasis, manifests as well-demarcated, raised, scaly, erythematous skin lesions. These lesions can appear anywhere on the body but are most commonly found on the scalp, elbows, nails, lower back, and knees.2,3
Psoriasis plaque formation is thought to be caused by dysregulated immune activity within the skin. This dysregulation can lead to an imbalance and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-23, IL-17, and IFN-γ in immune cells.2,4,5These cytokines promote chronic inflammation of the epidermis and induce keratinocyte hyperproliferation. These changes result in redness, itching, epidermal thickening, and scaly plaques.3-10
References: 1. Van Parijs L et al. Science. 1998;280:243‑248. 2. Mason AR et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;3:CD005028. 3. National Psoriasis Foundation. An Overview of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis. Portland, OR: National Psoriasis Foundation; 2009. 4. Lowes MA et al. Nature. 2007;445(7130):866-873. 5. Nestle FO et al. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:496‑509. 6. Schön MP et al. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(18):1899-1912. 7. Perera GK et al. Annu Rev Pathol. 2012;7:385-422. 8. Balato A et al. Psoriasis. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Europe; 2012. 9. Dogan S et al. Psoriasis—Types, Causes and Medication. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Europe; 2013. 10. Menter A et al. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(1):137-174.
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