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IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; PDE4, phosphodiesterase-4; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.
References: 1. OTEZLA Summary of Product Characteristics. Stockley Park, Uxbridge, UK: Celgene Europe, Ltd; 2016. 2. Schafer PH, Parton A, Capone L, et al. Apremilast is a selective PDE4 inhibitor with regulatory effects on innate immunity. Cell Signal. 2014;26(9):2016-2029. 3. Schafer PH, Chen P, Fang L, et al. The Pharmacodynamic Impact of Apremilast, an Oral Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, on Circulating Levels of In ammatory Biomarkers in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis: Substudy Results from a Phase III, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial (PALACE 1). Journal of Immunology Research. 2015.
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