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Psoriatic arthritis is a unique and challenging disease1-6

The multiple manifestations of psoriatic arthritis are driven by a network of cytokines3,7-21

A unique set of
clinical symptoms distinguishes PsA from other forms of arthritis and contributes to a substantial burden of disease1-6


References: 1. Coates LC, Kavanaugh A, Mease PJ, et al. Group for research and assessment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis 2015 treatment recommendations for psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(5):1060-1071. 2. Schafer P. Apremilast mechanism of action and application to psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83(12):1583-1590. 3. van Kuijk AW, Tak PP. Synovitis in psoriatic arthritis: immunohistochemistry, comparisons with rheumatoid arthritis, and effects of therapy. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011;13(4):353-359. 4. Gottlieb A, Korman NJ, Gordon KB, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: section 2. Psoriatic arthritis: overview and guidelines of care for treatment with an emphasis on the biologics. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(5):851-864. 5. Lebwohl MG, Bachelez H, Barker J, et al. Patient perspectives in the management of psoriasis: results from the population-based Multinational Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Survey. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70(5):871-881. 6. Varada S, Tintle SJ, Gottlieb AB. Apremilast for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2014;7(3):239-250. 7. Lee E, Trepicchio WL, Oestreicher JL, et al. Increased expression of interleukin 23 p19 and p40 in lesional skin of patients with psoriasis vulgaris. J Exp Med. 2004;199(1):125-130. 8. Lowes MA, Kikuchi T, Fuentes-Duculan J, et al. Psoriasis vulgaris lesions contain discrete populations of Th1 and Th17 T cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128(5):1207-1211. 9. Yao Y, Richman L, Morehouse C, et al. Type I interferon: potential therapeutic target for psoriasis? PLoS One. 2008;3(7):e2737. 10. Villanova F, Di Meglio P, Nestle FO. Biomarkers in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72(suppl 2):ii104-ii110. 11. Menon B, Gullick NJ, Walter GJ, et al. Interleukin-17+CD8+ T cells are enriched in the joints of patients with psoriatic arthritis and correlate with disease activity and joint damage progression. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66(5):1272-1281. 12. Celis R, Planell N, Fernández-Sueiro JL, et al. Synovial cytokine expression in psoriatic arthritis and associations with lymphoid neogenesis and clinical features. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14(2):R93. 13. Siegel EL, Orbai AM, Ritchlin CT. Targeting extra-articular manifestations in PsA: a closer look at enthesitis and dactylitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2015;27(2):111-117. 14. Taylan A, Sari I, Kozaci DL, et al. Evaluation of the T helper 17 axis in ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32(8):2511-2515. 15. Limon-Camacho L, Vargas-Rojas MI, Vazquez-Mellado J, et al. In Vivo Peripheral Blood Proinflammatory T Cells in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 2012;39:4. 16. Mease PJ, Marzo-Ortega H, Poder A, et al. Apremilast, an Oral Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, Is Associated With Long-term (52-Week) Improvements in BASDAI in Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis: Pooled Results From 3 Phase III, Randomized, Controlled Trials. Presented at: the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology EULAR 2016; 8–11 June 2016; London, UK. 17. Kyriakou A, Patsatsi A, Vyzantiadis TA, Sotiriadis D. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-12/23 p40, and IL-17 in psoriatic patients with and without nail psoriasis: a cross-sectional study. Scientific World Journal. 2014;2014:1-5. 18. Ebihara S, Date F, Dong Y, Ono M. Interleukin-17 is a critical target for the treatment of ankylosing enthesitis and psoriasis-like dermatitis in mice. Autoimmunity. 2015;48(4):259-266. 19. Yamamoto M, Nakajima K, Takaishi M, et al. Psoriatic inflammation facilitates the onset of arthritis in a mouse model. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135(2):445-453. 20. Sherlock JP, Joyce-Shaikh B, Turner SP, et al. IL-23 induces spondyloarthropathy by acting on ROR-γt+ CD3+CD4-CD8- entheseal resident T cells. Nat Med. 2012;18(7):1069-1076. 21. Ruutu M, Thomas G, Steck R, et al. β-glucan triggers spondylarthritis and Crohn's disease-like ileitis in SKG mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(7):2211-2222.

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